Sometimes, if I have a generator that I happen to know is non-empty, and I want to get at the first element, I’ll write code like this:

output = next(f for f in os.listdir(dir) if f.endswith('.o'))

In theory, the intended meaning of this code is something like this:

outputs = [f for f in os.listdir(dir) if f.endswith('.o')]
assert len(outputs) > 0 # or maybe assert len(outputs) == 1
output = outputs[0]

These two pieces of code are similar, but differ in one important way – if the assumption is wrong (i.e. there is a bug in the program), then the second will raise an AssertionError, while the first will raise a StopIteration exception. If this code happens to be inside a generator, maybe like this:

def outputs(dirs):
  for dir in dirs:
    yield next(f for f in os.listdir(dir) if f.endswith('.o'))

Then while an AssertionError would correctly bubble up to the caller, a StopIteration exception would instead only prematurely signal that the generator is exhausted, and it wouldn’t be possible in general for the caller to tell that something has gone wrong – it’s likely that the program would just keep running and produce wrong results, making the bug potentially much less straightforward to track down.

So while using next for this purpose is cute, its behavior in cases like this might catch you off guard. If your intention is to communicate an assumption you’re making, you’re probably better off using assert, even if it’s slightly more long-winded.